等位接続詞と従位接続詞

接続詞は大きく等位接続詞と従位接続詞にわかれる。一般的に and, but, or, for, so は等位接続詞といわれ、それ以外はだいたい従位接続詞に属する。等位接続詞と従位接続詞を分ける統語的なテストは等位接続詞は2つ使うことができない。

(1)
a. *He sold his house and, but he didn't like it, he would give the money to the city.
b. He sold his house because, but he didn't like it, he would give the money to the city.

(1a) は and と but と2つ等位接続詞があるので非文となっている。つぎに等位節は等位接続詞でつなげることはできないが、従位節は等位接続詞でつなげることが可能である。

(2)
a. He changed his job, because he was not happy and because there was anybody to respect.
b. *He changed his job, for he was not happy and for there was anybody to respect.

(2b) が非文なのは等位節が等位接続詞でつながれているからである。さらに等位節は移動して文頭に置くことはできない。

(3)
a. John was tired but he kept working.
b. *But he kept working, John was tired.
c. John kept working although he was tired.
d. Although he was tired, John kept working.

(3b) が非文なのは (3a) の後半の等位節を文頭に移動したからである。さらに等位接続詞の and や but や or は2つ目の節の主語が最初と同じ場合は省略が可能である。

(4)
a. John was tired but kept working.
b. *John kept working although was tired.

最後に等位接続詞の and と or は3つ以上の節が続く場合は最後に接続詞をいれて前の接続詞は省略できる。

(5)
a. John was tired, he was hungry, and he was thirsty.
b. *John was tired, he was happy, but he was active.

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by miyakmae | 2017-12-10 20:54 | 言語 | Comments(0)

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