直接目的語の外置

直接目的語に虚辞の it を置き、外置する動詞はそれほど多くない。 McCawley (1988) は次のような例を挙げている。

(1)
a. I took it for granted that George would help us.
b. John regrets it that he quit his job.
c. I can't help it that I'm madly in love with Edith.
d. You can depend on it that he'll try to make trouble.
e. He never gave it a thought that Bolshies are human beings.

これらは単純に虚辞で表しその後に that 節を外置したのではない。というのも虚辞の it を外すとすべて非文となるのである。

(2)
a. *I took that George would help us for granted.
b. *John regrets that he quit his job.
c. *I can't help that I'm madly in love with Edith.
d. *You can depend on that he'll try to make trouble.
e. *He never gave that Bolshies are human beings a thought.

しかし不思議なことに同じようなものなのに疑似分裂文では問題なくなる。

(3)
a. What I took for granted was that George would help us.
b. What John regrets is that he quit his job.
c. What I can't help is that I'm madly in love with Edith.
d. What you can depend on is that he'll try to make trouble.
e. What he never gave a thought was that Bolshies are human beings.

しかし中には虚辞なでも可能な文もある。

(4)
a. John predicted that the Yokohamas would win.
b. John predicted it that the Yokohamas would win.

(4a) と (4b) はしかし若干 presupposition が異なる。 (4b) の方が「横浜が勝利した」ことをより事実としてとらえている傾向が強い。

最近の三四郎は朝はいつもこうである。

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by miyakmae | 2017-07-31 07:31 | 言語 | Comments(0)

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